X-ray Nanochemistry

2018 Publications

Arjun Sharmah, Jennifer Lien, Mengqi Su and Ting Guo, Theoretical Study of X-ray Induced Energy Transfer (XIET) from Nanomaterial Donors to Nanomaterial Acceptors. J. Phys. Chem. C., Published online April 17 (cover, Aug.) (2018).

Ting Guo. X-ray Nanochemistry: Concepts and Development. Series Title: Nanostructure Science and Technology. pp 511. Springer International Publishing, ISBN 978-3-319-78004-7. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-78004-7. (2018)

2016 Publications

Arjun Sharmah, S. Mukherjee, Zi Yao, Lei Lu and T. Guo, Concentration-Dependent Association between Weakly Attractive Nanoparticles in Aqueous Solutions, J. Phys. Chem. C, 120. 19830-19836 (2016).

Jennifer Lien, Kristen A. Peck, Mengqi Su and Ting Guo,.Sub-Monolayer Silver Loss from Large Gold Nanospheres Detected by Surface Plasmon Resonance in the Sigmoid Region. J. Colloid and Interface Science, 479. 173-181 (2016).

E M Shin, Anderson D S, Silva, R.M., D L Uyeminami, G M Scott, T Guo, L S Van Winkle and K E Pinkerton,.Size-Dependent Deposition, Translocation, and Microglial Activation of Inhaled Silver Nanoparticles in the Rodent Nose and Brain. Env. Health Perspectives, Published. DOI:10.1289/EHP234 (6 May 2016).

Joan Chang, Ryan Taylor, Arjun Sharmah, R. Andrew Davidson and T. Guo, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Investigation of Radical Production by Gold Nanoparticles in Aqueous Solutions under X-ray-Irradiation, J. Phys. Chem. A , 120. 2815-2823 (2016).

Arjun Sharmah, Zi Yao, Lei Lu and T. Guo, X-ray-Induced Energy Transfer between Nanomaterials under X-ray Irradiation, J. Phys. Chem. C, 120. 3054-3060 (2016).

Silva, R.M., Anderson D S, Peake, J., Edwards, P.C., E S Patchin, T Guo, G K Das, T Gordon, L C Chen, L S Van Winkle and K E Pinkerton,. Aerosolized Silver Nanoparticles in the Rat Lung and Pulmonary Responses over Time. Toxicologic Pathology, 44. 673-686 (2016).

R. Andrew Davidson and T. Guo, Nanoparticle-Assisted Scanning Focusing X-ray Therapy using Needle Beam X-rays, Rad. Res., 185. 87-95 (2016).

2015 Publications

R. Andrew Davidson and T. Guo, Multiplication Algorithm for Combined Physical and Chemical Enhancement of X-ray Effect by Nanomaterails, J. Phys. Chem. C , 119. 19513-9. (2014).

Lee, Changju, R. Andrew Davidson and Ting Guo, Investigation of Magnetic Field Manipulated Electrons Produced from Laser-Driven Ultrafast X-ray Sources using X-ray Emission Spectroscopy. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 48. 105202 (2015).

Anderson D S, E S Patchin, R M Silva, D L Uyeminami, A Sharmah, T Guo, G K Das, J M Brown, J Shannahan, T Gordon, L C Chen, K E Pinkerton, and L S Van Winkle, . Influence of Particle Size on Persistence and Clearance of Aerosolized Silver Nanoparticles in the Rat Lung. Toxicological Sciences, 144. 366-81, (2015).

2014 Publications

Guo, Yu, Davidson, R. Andrew, Peck, Kristin and Guo, Ting. Encapsulation of Multiple Large Spherical Silica Nanoparticles in Hollow Spherical Silica Shells. JCIS, 445. 112-8 (2015). Published online Dec. 2014.

Davidson, R., Anderson, D., Van Winkle, L., Pinkerton, K., and Guo, T., Evolution of Silver Nanoparticles in the Rat Lung Investigated by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. J. Phys. Chem. A , 119. 281-9 (2015). Published online on December 16, 2014.

R. Andrew Davidson and T. Guo, Average Physical Enhancement by Nanomaterials under X-ray Irradiation, J. Phys. Chem. C , 118. 30221-8. (2014).

Anderson, D. S.; Silva, R. G.; Lee, D.; Edwards, P. C.; Sharmah, A.; Guo, T.; Pinkerton, K. E.; Van Winkle, L. S. Persistence of Silver Nanoparticles in the Rat Lung: Influence of Dose, Size and Chemical Composition, Nanotoxicology, 18. 1-12. (2014).

R. Andrew Davidson, Chad Sugiyama and T. Guo, Determination of Absolute Quantum Efficiency of X-ray Nano Phosphors by Thin Film Photovoltaic Cells, Analytical Chem., 86, 10492-6. (2014).

2013 Publications

Starkewolf, Z.B., L. Miyachi, J. Wong and T. Guo, X-ray Triggered Release of Doxorubicin from Nanoparticle Drug Carriers for Cancer Therapy, Chem. Comm., 49, 2545-7. (2013).

2012 Publications

R. Andrew Davidson and T. Guo, An Example of X-ray Nanochemistry: SERS Investigation of Polymerization Enhanced by Nanostructures under X-ray Irradiation, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 3, 3271-5 (2012).

Carter, J.D., N.N. Cheng, Y. Qu, G.D. Suarez and T. Guo, Enhanced Single Strand Breaks of Supercoiled DNA in a Matrix of Gold Nanotubes under X-ray Irradiation, JCIS , 378 (1) pp 70-6 (2012).

Lee, C., Cheng, N.N., R.A. Davidson and T. Guo, Geometry Enhancement of Nanoscale Energy Deposition by X-rays, JPC/C, DOI: 10.1021/jp210301q, 116, 11292-7 (Cover Story, May 20 issue) (2012).

Neal N. Cheng, Zane Starkewolf, R. Andrew Davidson, Arjun Sharmah, Changju Lee, Jennifer Lien, and Ting Guo, Chemical Enhancement by Nanomaterials under X-ray Irradiation, JACS (Communication) , 134 (4), pp 1950-1953 (2012).

2011 Publications

Yongquan Qu, Jingwei Bai, Lei Liao, Rui Cheng, Yung-Chen Lin, Yu Huang, Ting Guo and Xiangfeng Duan, Synthesis and Electronic Properties of Cobalt Monosilicide Nanobelts, Chem. Commun.,47, 1255-1257 (2011).

Madl, Amy; Teague, Stephen; Qu, Yongquan; Masiel, Daniel; Evans, James; Guo, Ting; and Pinkerton, Kent, Aerosolization System for Experimental Inhalation Studies of Carbon-Based Nanomaterials, Aerosol Science & Technology, 46: 94-107 (2012) (Available online Sep. 28, 2011).

2010 Publications

Masiel, D., B.W. Reed, T.B. Lagrange, G.H. Campbell, T. Guo, and N. Browning. Time-Resolved Annular Field Imaging of Catalyst Nanoparticles, Chem. Phys. Chem., (Commun) 11, 2088-2090 (2010).

Qu, Y., Sutherland, A.M., J. Lien, G.D. Suarez, and T. Guo; Probing Site Activity of Monodisperse Pt Nanoparticles using Steam Reforming of Methane, Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 1, 254-259 (2010).

2009 Publications

Guo, T.; More Power to X-rays: New Developments in X-ray Spectroscopy, Laser & Photonics Reviews, 3, 591-622 (2009).

Qu, Y., J. Lien, and T. Guo; Synthesis of Symmetric and Asymmetric Nanosilica for Materials, Optical and Medical Applications,Nanomaterials for Life Sciences Vol.2: Nanostructured Oxides, 55-78 (2009).


2008 Publications

Qu, Y., A.M.Sutherland and T. Guo; Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane by Ni/Co Nanoparticle Catalysts Immobilized on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes, Energy & Fuels, 22(4) 2183-2187 (2008).

Qu, Y., D.J. Masiel , N.N. Cheng, A.M.Sutherland, J.D. Carter, N.D. Browning, and T. Guo; Recognition of Melting of Nanoparticle Catalysts with Cubically Shaped Co3O4 Nanoparticles, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 321 251 (2008).

2007 Publications

Carter, J.D., N.N. Cheng, Y. Qu, G. D. Suarez and T. Guo; Nanoscale Energy Deposition by X-ray Absorbing Nanostructures, J. Phys. Chem. B, 111 (Letters) 11622 (2007).

Qu, Y., A.M. Sutherland and T. Guo; Nanowires for solar energy and hydrogen production, SPIE, 6650 10 (2007).

Shan, F., R. Porter, N.N. Cheng, D.J. Masiel and T. Guo; Investigations of Laser Evaporation in Ambient Pressure Helium with Ultrafast Hard X-ray Pulses, J. Phys. Chem. C, 111 4643 (2007).

Guo, T., Dual Catalytic Role of Co Nanoparticles in Bulk Synthesis of Si-based Nanowires, Nanotechnology in Catalysis Vol 3., eds. B. Zhou, S. Hermans, and G.A. Somorjai. Ch. 10, 153-181 (2007).

Shan, F., J.D. Carter and T. Guo; Damage of Supercoiled DNA by an Ultrafast Laser-diven Electron X-ray Source, Optical Express, 15, 754 (2007).

2006 Publications

Shan, F., V.A. Couch, W.H. Fink and T. Guo, Determination of charge state of tungsten during ultrafast hard x-ray generation, Femtochemistry VII, eds. A.W. Castleman, Jr and M.L. Kimble, 53-56 (2006).

Qu, Y., J. D. Carter, A. Sutherland and T. Guo; Surface Modification of Gold Nanotubules via Microwave Radiation, Sonication and Chemical Etching, Chem. Phys. Lett., 432, 195 (2006).

Shan, F., J.D. Carter and T. Guo; DNA Strand Breaks by a Laser-Driven Electron X-ray source (LEXS), Ultrafast Phenomena XV, (2006) In Press.

Shan, F., R. Porter, N. Cheng, D.J. Masiel, and T. Guo; Imaging Plume Dynamics with Ultrafast Hard X-rays, Ultrafast Phenomena XV, (2006) In Press.

Qu, Y., R. Porter, F. Shan, J.D. Carter and T. Guo; Synthesis of Tubular Gold and Silver Nanoshells using Silica Nanowire Templates, Langmuir, 22, 6367 (2006).

Qu, Y., C., J.D. Carter, and, T. Guo; Silica Nanocoils, J. Phys. Chem. B, 110, 8296 (2006).

2005 Publications

Condron, C.L., R. Porter, T. Guo, and S.M. Kauziarich, Crystal structures, Raman spectroscopy, and magnetic properties of Ba7.5Al13Si29 and Eu0.27Ba7.22Al13Si29, Inorg. Chem., 44, 9185 (2005).

Cheng, C., V.F. Puntes, T. Guo; Synthesis and Self-Assembled Ring Structures of Ni Nanocrystals, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 293, 430, (2005).

Shan, F. and T. Guo, USEXAS Investigations of Ni and Zn Species, J. Chem. Phys., 122, 244710 (2005).

Foley, E.A., J.D. Carter, F. Shan and T. Guo. Enhanced Relaxation of Nanoparticle-Bound Supercoiled DNA in X-ray Radiation, Chem. Commun. 3192 - 3194 (2005).

Shan, F, Couch, V. and Guo, T. Atomic Tungsten for Ultrafast Hard X-ray Generation, Journal of Physical Chemistry A 109, 4116 (2005).

Porter, R., F. Shan and T. Guo, CARS Microscopy with Spectrally-Tailored Ultrafast Pulses, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 76, 043108 (2005).

Carter, J.D., Y. Qu, R. Porter, L. Hoang, D. Masiel, and T. Guo, Silicon-Based Nanowires from Silicon Wafers Catalyzed by Cobalt Nanoparticles in a Hydrogen Environment, Chem. Commun., 17: 2274 - 2276 (2005).

Carter, J.D.; F. Shan; and T. Guo. Determination of CoSi2 Self-Aligned Nanostructures with Grazing Incidence X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 109, 4118 (2005).

Shan, F.; J.D. Carter; V. Ng; and T. Guo. Laser-driven hard x-ray generation based on ultrafast selected energy x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of Ni compounds. Phys. Rev. E., Rapid Communication, 71, 025401 (R) (2005).

2004 Publications

Cheng, G.; J.D. Carter; and T. Guo. Investigation of Co nanoparticles with EXAFS and XANES. Chemical Physics Letters, 400: 122-127. (2004).

Carter, J.D.; G.Cheng; and T. Guo. Growth of Self-Aligned Crystalline Cobalt Silicide Nanostructures from Co Nanoparticles. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 108: 6091-6094. (2004).

Osterloh, F.; H. Hiramatsu; R. Porter; and T. Guo. Alkanethiol-Induced Structural Rearrangements in Silica-Gold Core-Shell-type Nanoparticle Clusters: An Opportunity for Chemical Sensor Engineering. Langmuir. 20, 5553 (2004).

Guo, T. Multifunctional Catalysts for Singlewall Carbon Nanotube Synthesis. Nanotechnology in Catalysis Vol 1., eds. B. Zhou, S. Hermans, and G.A. Somorjai, p137. (2004).

Shan, F.; J. D. Carter; V. Ng; and T. Guo. Ultrafast Selected Energy X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (USEXAS) with a Laser-Driven X-ray Source. Proceedings of SPIE, 5340: 113. (2004).

2003 Publications

2002 Publications

Cheng, GJ.; F. Shan; A. Freyer; and T. Guo. Compact 50-Hz terawatt Ti : sapphire laser for x-ray and nonlinear optical spectroscopy. Applied Optics, 41: 5148. (2002).

Cheng, G.; and T. Guo. Surface segregation in Ni/Co bimetallic nanoparticles produced in single-walled carbon nanotube synthesis. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 106: 5833. (2002).

2001 Publications

Cheng, G.J.; F. Shan; A. Freyer; and T. Guo. Ultrafast X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy using Laser-Driven Electron X-ray Sources (LEXS). Proceedings of SPIE, 4504: 1-7. (2001).

Guo, T.; C. Spielmann; B.C. Walker; and C.P.J. Barty. Generation of hard x rays by ultrafast terawatt lasers. Review of Scientific Instruments, 72: 41. (2001).

2000 Publications

Toth, C.; D. Kim; B.C. Walker; T. Guo; S.H. Son; C.W. Siders; A. Cavalleri; and C.P.J Barty. Ultrafast coherent and incoherent X-ray generation by inner-shell atomic processes induced by < 25 fs, > 1 J pulses of high power CPA lasers. Laser Physics, 10: 513. (2000).

Walker, BC.; C. Toth; D. Fittinghoff; and T. Guo. Theoretical and experimental spectral phase error analysis for pulsed laser fields. Journal of Optical Society of America B-Optical Physics, 16: 1292. (2000).

1999 Publications

Rose-Petruck, C.; R. Jimenez.; T. Guo; A. Cavalleri.; C.W. Siders; F. Raksi; J.A. Squier; B.C.Walker; K.R. Wilson; and C.P.J Barty. Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast X-ray diffraction. Nature, 398: 310. (1999).

Siders, C.W.; A. Cavalleri; K. Sokolowski-Tinten; C. Toth; T. Guo; M. Kammler; M.H. von Hoegen; K.R. Wilson; D. von der Linde; and C.P.J Barty. Detection of nonthermal molting by ultrafast X-ray diffraction. Science, 286: 1340. (1999).

Walker, B.C.; C. Toth; D.N. Fittinghoff; T. Guo; D.E. Kim; C. Rose-Petruck; J.A. Squier; K.Yamakawa; K.R. Wilson; and C.P.J Barty. A 50-EW/cm2 Ti : sapphire laser system for studying relativistic light-matter interactions. Optics Express, 5: 196. (1999).

1998 Publications

Guo, T.; C. Rose-Petruck; R.X. Jimenez; J.A. Squier; B.C. Walker; K.R. Wilson; and C.P.J Barty. X-ray Diffraction Study of Laser-Material Interactions with an Ultrafast Table-Top X-ray Source. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 502: 77. (1998).

Jimenez, R.; C. Rose-Petruck; T. Guo; K.R. Wilson; and C.P.J. Barty. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction of GaAs with a 20-fs, laser-driven plasma source. Ultrafast Phenomena XI, eds. T. Elsaesser, J.G. Fujimoto, D.A. Wiersma, and W. Zinth, p404. (1998).

1997 Publications

Barty, C.P.J; M. Ben-Nun; T. Guo; F. Raksi; C. Rose-Petruck; J.A. Squier; K.R. Wilson; V.V Yakovlev; P.M. Weber; Z. Jian; A. Ikhlef; and J-C. Kieffer. Ultrafast X-ray Diffraction and Absorption. Time Resolved Electron and X-Ray Diffraction, eds. P.M. Rentzepis and J. Helliwell Oxford University Press, New York, p44. (1997).

Guo, T; C. Rose-Petruck; R. Jimenez; F. Raksi; J. Squier; B. Walker; K. Wilson; and C.P.J. Barty. Picosecond-milliangstrom resolution dynamics by ultrafast x-ray diffraction. Proceedings of SPIE, 3157: 84 (1997).

Nikolaev, P.; A. Thess; T. Guo; D.T. Colbert; and R.E. Smalley. FULLERENE NANOWIRES. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 69: 31. (1997).

1996 Publications

Barty, C.P.J; J. Che; T. Guo; B. Kohler; C. LeBlanc; M. Messina; F. Raksi; C. Rose-Petruck; J.A. Squier; K.R. Wilson; V.V. Yakovlev; K. Yamakawa; Z. Jiang; A. Ikhlef; C.Y. Cote; and J.C. Kieffer. Seeing into Matter with x-rays and Controlling its Evolution with Light. Femtochemistry, Ultrafast Chemical and Physical Processes in Molecular Systems, ed. Majed Chergui, World Scientific, Singapore, p348.  (1996).

Squier, J.A.; T. Guo; C. LeBlanc; C. Rose-Petruck; F. Raksi; B. Walker; K.R. Wilson; V.V. Yakovlev; and C.P.J Barty. Regenerative pulse shaping: a new technique for ultrabroadband amplification. Utrafast Phenomena X. eds. P.F Barbara, J.G. Fujimoto, W.H. Knox, and W. Zinth, p87. (1996).

Barty, C.P.J; T. Guo; C. LeBlanc; C. Rose-Petruck; F. Raksi; J.A. Squier; K.R. Wilson; V.V. Yakovlev; and K. Yamakawa, Sub-20-fs multoterawatt laser and ultrashort X-ray source. Proceedings of SPIE, 2701: 84. (1996).

Yamakawa, K.; T. Guo; C. LeBlanc; G. Korn; F. Raksi; C. Rose-Petruck; J.A. Squier; K.R. Wilson; V.V. Yakovlev; and C.P.J. Barty, Techniques for controlling gain narrowing during ultrashort pulse amplification. Proceedings of SPIE, 2701: 198. (1996).

Barty, C.P.J.; T. Guo; C. LeBlanc; F. Raksi; C. Rose-Petruck; J.A. Squier; K.R. Wilson; V.V. Yakovlev; and K. Yamakawa. Ultrashort pulse, ultrahigh peak power Ti: Sapphire lasers. Proceedings of SPIE, 2701: 84. (1996).

1995 Publications

Barty, CPJ.; T. Guo; C. Leblanc; F. Raksi; C. Rose-Petruck; J.A. Squier; K.R. Wilson; V.V. Yakovlev; and K. Yamakawa. GENERATION OF 18-FS, MULTITERAWATT PULSES BY REGENERATIVE PULSE SHAPING AND CHIRPED-PULSE AMPLIFICATION. Optics Letters, 21: 668. (1995).

Guo, T.; P. Nikolaev; A. Rinzler; D. Tomanek; D. Colbert; and R.E. Smalley. SELF-ASSEMBLY OF TUBULAR FULLERENES. J. Phys. Chem., 99: 10694. (1995).

Guo, T.; P. Nikolaev; A. Thess; D.T. Colbert; and R.E. Smalley. CATALYTIC GROWTH OF SINGLE-WALLED NANOTUBES BY LASER VAPORIZATION. Chem. Phys. Lett., 243: 49. (1995).

Conceio, J.; R.T. Laasksonsen; L. S. Wang; T. Guo; P. Nordlander; and R.E. Smalley. Photoelectron spectroscopy of transition metal clusters: correlation of valence electronic structure to reactivity. Phys. Rev. B, 98: 4668. (1995).

Guo, T. and R. E. Smalley. Production of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes via Laser Vaporization Technique. Electrochemical Society Proceedings, 95-10: 636 (1995).

1994 Publications

Guo, T.; G. Odom; and G.E. Scuseria. ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF SC-AT-C-60 - AN AB INITIO THEORETICAL STUDY. J. Phys. Chem., 98: 7745. (1994).

Lin, F.; S. Mao; Z. Meng; H. Zeng; C. Ye; J. Qiu; Y. Yue; and T. Guo. Fullerene doped glasses. Appl. Phys. Lett., 65: 2522. (1994).

Guo, T. G. Odom, G.E. Scuseria and R. E. Smalley. The Size and Structural Effects of the Empty Fullerenes on the Binding Energies of the Endohedral Metallofullerenes Ca@Cn. Electrochemical Society Proceedings, 94-24: 1382.

1993 Publications

Guo, T.; R.E. Smalley; and G.E. Scuseria. ABINITIO THEORETICAL PREDICTIONS OF C28, C28H4, C28F4, (TI AT C28)H4, AND M AT C28 (M=MG, AL, SI, S, CA, SC, TI, GE, ZR, AND SN), J. Chem. Phys., 99: 352. (1993).

Wang, L.S; J.M. Alford; Y. Chai; M. Diener; J. Zhang; S.M. McClure; T. Guo; G.E. Scuseria; and R.E. Smalley. The electronic structure of Ca@C60. Chem. Phys. Lett., 207: 354. (1993).

Lou, L.; T. Guo; R.E. Smalley; and P. Nordlander. ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF THE HOLLOW-CAGE M(8)X(12) CLUSTERS, J. Chem. Phys., 99: 5301. (1993).

Qiu, P.; T. Guo; F. Lin; C. Huang; and X. Zhao. Generation of UV ultrashort pulses in the LBO crystals. Chinese J. of Lasers, 20: 150. (1993).

1992 Publications

Guo, T.; M.D. Diener; Y. Chai; M.J. Alford; R.E. Haufler; S.M. McClure; T. Ohno; J.H. Weaver; G.E. Scuseria; and R.E. Smalley. Uranium stabilization of C28; a tetravalent fullerene. Science, 257: 1661. (1992).

Guo, T.; and G.E. Scuseria. Ab initio calculations of tetrahedral hydrogenated Buckminsterfullerenes. Chem. Phys. Lett., 190: 527. (1992).

Weaver, J.; Y. Chai; G.H. Kroll; C. Jin; T.R. Ohno; R.E. Haufler; T. Guo; J.M. Alford; J. Conceico; L.P.F. Chibante; A. Jain; G. Palmer; and R.E. Smalley. XPS probes carbon-caged metals. Chem. Phys. Lett., 190: 460. (1992).

Alford, J.M.; T. Guo; and R.E. Smalley. Sin(x)/x correction for SWIFT waveforms. ICR/Ion Trap Newsletter, 27: 1. (1992).

1991 Publications

Nygren, M.A.; P.E.M. Siegban; C. Jin; T. Guo; and R.E. Smalley. Electronic shell closings in metal cluster plus adsorbate systems: Cu7+CO and Cu17+CO. J. Chem. Phys., 95: 6181. (1991).

Guo, T.; C. Jin; and R.E. Smalley. Doping Bucky: formation and properties of Boron-doped Buckminsterfullerene. J. Phys. Chem., 95: 4948. (1991).

Chai, Y.; T. Guo; C. Jin; R.E. Haufler; L.P.F. Chibante; J. Fure; L. Wang; J.M. Alford; and R.E. Smalley. Fullerenes with metal inside. J. Chem. Phys., 95: 7564. (1991).

1990 Publications

Guo, T.; Z. Wang; and J. Qiu. Study of the kinetics of afterglow He-Kr laser. Chinese J. of Lasers, Physics Lasers, 17: 449. (1990).
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